Shoulder instability in the overhand or throwing athlete.

Kvitne RS, Jobe FW, Jobe CM. Clin Sports Med 1995 Oct;14(4):917-35.

In the young throwing athlete with shoulder pain, it is essential to recognize that glenohumeral joint instability (occult subluxation, rather than impingement) is the primary underlying pathology. Fortunately, conservative management is effective in most chronic overuse injuries. For those athletes with continued symptoms, surgical intervention may become necessary. The anterior capsulolabral reconstruction addresses the problem of glenohumeral joint instability by correcting the capsular redundancy, labrum damage, or both. The authors believe this most recent surgical technique and postoperative rehabilitation program has resulted in a significant improvement in our ability to more predictably and successfully return these athletes to prior competitive levels.