Kategoriarkiv: Fracture of the arm



Displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Audit changes practice. 

O’Hara LJ, Barlow JW, Clarke NM. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2000 Mar;82(2):204-10

We performed an audit of 71 children with consecutive displaced, extension-type supracondylar fractures of the humerus over a period of 30 months. The fractures were classified according to the Wilkins modification of the Gartland system. There were 29 type IIA, 22 type IIB and 20 type III. We assessed the effectiveness of guidelines proposed after a previous four-year review of 83 supracondylar fractures. These recommended that: 1) an experienced surgeon should be responsible for the initial management; 2) closed or open reduction of type-IIB and type-III fractures must be supplemented by stabilisation with Kirschner (K-) wires; and 3) K-wires of adequate thickness (1.6 mm) must be used in a crossed configuration. The guidelines were followed in 52 of the 71 cases. When they were observed there were no reoperations and no malunion. In 19 children in whom they had not been observed more than one-third required further operation and six had a varus deformity. Failure to institute treatment according to the guidelines led to an unsatisfactory result in 11 patients. When they were followed the result of treatment was much better. We have devised a protocol for the management of these difficult injuries.



Elbow injuries in childhood.

Weise K, Schwab E, Scheufele TM. Unfallchirurg 1997 Apr;100(4):255-69

Fractures and dislocations of the elbow are some of the most common injuries in childhood and adolescence. The majority occur in sport and play activities, e.g., a fall from gymnastics apparatus or a bike, or from popular sports items, such as skateboards or in-line skates. The injuries can be divided into pure dislocations of the joint and fractures of the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna, or combinations of both. In addition, extra- and intraarticular fracture types are defined, with the latter as partial or complete joint lesions. Dislocations of the elbow joint or the radial head can occur as single injuries or in combination with a fracture. Supracondylar fractures and avulsion fractures of the medial epicondyle are the most frequent extraarticular lesions of the distal humerus. Fractures of the lateral condyle prevail is incomplete intraarticular lesions. In the forearm, radial head and neck fractures are predominant while typical and atypical Monteggia injuries have a special status. The complex joint construction and the age-dependent appearance of the epiphyseal ossification centers sometimes make a correct radiological diagnosis difficult. The trauma history and an exact, clinical examination help to verify the injury, as do comparative X-ray studies of the uninjured side when necessary (but not routinely). Unlike other anatomical areas, most elbow injuries-even in the growing skeleton-are treated operatively. Hereby, the growth plates have to be respected using minimal amounts of small implants. Additional immobilization in a cast for 2-4 weeks is necessary in most cases but does not lead to a functional deficit-in contrast to adults. The implants should be removed as early as possible. Despite all therapeutic efforts, a significant number of late sequelae, such as malunions and functional impairment, can be seen. The rate of long-term complications increases in cases of untreated displacement of fragments or joint instability. Corrective measures are performed only in selected cases and after the growth plates are closed. Our own treatment regime is demonstrated using exemplary clinical cases of the different injuries and the results of a long-term follow-up study on sports injuries of the elbow in children. Errors in diagnosis and therapy, as well as possible complications, are pointed out.



The management of forearm fractures in children: a plea for conservatism..

Jones K, Weiner DS. J Pediatr Orthop 1999 Nov-Dec;19(6):811-5

A retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of primary nonoperative treatment (closed reduction and long-arm casting) along with pins and plaster as a salvage technique for those reduction failures. A total of 730 closed fractures (1987-1993) was compiled, of which 300 required closed reductions and casting. Excluded from the study were teenagers whose growth plates were closed. Of the 300 fractures requiring closed reductions, 22 went on to require remanipulations, and 12 required the use of pins-and-plaster technique to obtain or maintain satisfactory reduction. Complications in the group treated in this manner included two superficial pin infections treated with antibiotics and two forearms with moderate loss of pronation/supination not requiring treatment. We believe that closed reduction of pediatric forearm fractures remains the accepted standard and the technique of pins and plaster should be considered a reliable alternative for the unstable injuries.



Elbow effusions in trauma in adults and children: is there an occult fracture?

Major NM, Crawford ST. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002 Feb;178(2):413-8

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a detectable abnormality was present on MR imaging without a visible fracture on conventional radiography in the setting of trauma. A recent retrospective study based on the presence or absence of periosteal reaction on follow-up radiographs concluded that fractures were not always present. The discrepancies in the literature over the usefulness of joint effusions as an indicator of fracture caused us to evaluate whether fractures were present more often than identified by conventional radiography. To do this, we used MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen consecutive patients (age range, 4-80 years; seven children and six adults), whose post-trauma elbow radiographs showed an effusion but no fracture, underwent screening MR imaging. RESULTS: All patients showed bone marrow edema. Four of the seven children had fractures on screening MR imaging, and all adults had some identifiable fractures. CONCLUSION: Preliminary data using screening MR imaging suggests that an occult fracture usually is present in the setting of effusion without radiographically visualized fracture.