Kategoriarkiv: Rib fracture



Sonography compared with radiography in revealing acute rib fracture.

Griffith JF, Rainer TH, Ching AS, Law KL, Cocks RA, Metreweli C. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999 Dec;173(6):1603-9.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivities of sonography and radiography for revealing acute rib fracture. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Chest radiography and rib sonography were performed on 50 patients with suspected rib fractures. Sonography was performed with a 9- or 12-MHz linear transducer. Fractures were identified by a disruption of the anterior margin of the rib, costochondral junction, or costal cartilage. The incidence, location, and degree of displacement of fractures revealed by radiography and sonography were compared. Sonography was performed again after 3 weeks in 37 subjects. RESULTS: At presentation, radiographs revealed eight rib fractures in six (12%) of 50 patients and sonography revealed 83 rib fractures in 39 (78%) of 50 patients. Seventy-four (89%) of the 83 sonographically detected fractures were located in the rib, four (5%) were located at the costochondral junction, and five (6%) in the costal cartilage. Repeated sonography after 3 weeks showed evidence of healing in all reexamined fractures. Combining sonography at presentation and after 3 weeks, 88% of subjects had sustained a fracture. CONCLUSION: Sonography reveals more fractures than does radiography and will reveal fractures in most patients presenting with suspected rib fracture. Further scientific studies are needed to clarify the appropriate role for sonography in rib fracture detection.



Stress fractures of the ribs in golfers.

Lord MJ, Ha KI, Song KS. Am J Sports Med 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):118-22.

During a collaborative review at three institutions, we documented 19 cases of stress fractures of the ribs in golfers. There were 13 men and 6 women with an average age of 39 years (range, 29 to 51). The 4th to 6th ribs were the most commonly injured. All fractures occurred along the posterolateral aspect of the ribs, and nine patients had fractures in more than one rib. Sixteen golfers sustained injury on the leading arm side of the trunk. Eighteen golfers were beginners, and the one experienced golfer had dramatically increased his practice time on the driving range before injury. Plain radiographs were usually diagnostic. However, bone scintigraphy was necessary to reach a diagnosis in three cases. A delay in diagnosis of 6 to 8 months occurred in two cases that were originally misdiagnosed as back strains. Stress fractures of the ribs in golfers may be more common than previously realized and may be incorrectly diagnosed as recalcitrant back strains. Based on the findings of other studies, we think fatigue of the serratus anterior is the mechanism of injury. We recommend strengthening the serratus anterior as rehabilitation after this injury and in a general conditioning program for golfers.

morphine type drugs



Indication. Analgesic (pain killing tablets) can be used on a greatly limited scale to reduce pain in connection with minor injuries where this is a risk of aggravating the injury with continued activity (i.e. bleeding under the nail and the like). The treatment can naturally also be utilized in many other cases with pain present if the sports activity is discontinued (fracture, lumbago and the like).
Some of the drugs within the “weak morphines” group are on the list of prohibited doping substances!

Mechanism of action. Weak morphines are pain killing tablets with a weak morphine-like effect. The effect is not substantially different from paracetamol. There are several different drugs within the “weak morphines” group, which are all absorbed via the intestines. The effect can be expected after approx. ½-1 hour, with a duration of 3-6 hours.

Side effects. The side effects are of the same character (although weaker) as morphine: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, constipation and dizziness, and therefore extreme caution should be exercised when driving. The drugs present only a limited risk of dependence and addiction. Overdoses can be life threatening.

Contraindication. Pain killers should never be used to allow an athlete continue a sports activity which can bring about a risk of aggravating the injury. As there are different contraindications with all the drugs in the “weak morphines” group, the attending doctor should acquire a good knowledge of the patient before prescribing drugs from this group.

Dose. Dependent upon which drug is used in the treatment.

Conclusion. Weak morphines are almost never indicated in the treatment of sports injuries, as it is possible to achieve almost the same result with non-prescription drugs with considerably less risk attached.