Management of acute and chronic biceps tendon rupture.

Aldridge JW, Bruno RJ, Strauch RJ, Rosenwasser MP. Hand Clin 2000 Aug;16(3):497-503.

In conclusion, the authors believe that younger high-demand patients should be offered the option of surgical repair; can be performed through the preferred single anterior incision with two suture anchors. Chronic tears, even with retraction, may be successfully reconstructed using a free tendon graft, often the flexor carpi radialis. Complications, including radial nerve palsy and proximal radioulnar synostosis, can be avoided with the single-incision technique. Older, low-demand patients can be rehabilitated and have excellent function without acute repair. Partial tendon injuries, for the most part, may be treated with rest and rehabilitation and explored only for chronic, unremitting pain. The authors believe that the single anterior approach should be used over the previously popularized two-incision technique.