1) Scheuermann’s disease.

Lowe TG. Orthop Clin North Am 1999 Jul;30(3):475-87, ix

Scheuermann’s disease is the most common cause of structural kyphosis in adolescence. The mode of inheritance is likely autosomal dominant and the etiology remains largely unknown. Indications for treatment remain controversial because the true natural history of the disease has not been clearly defined. Brace treatment appears to be very effective if the diagnosis is made early. Surgical treatment is rarely indicated for severe kyphosis (> 75 degrees ) with curve progression, refractory pain, or neurologic deficit.